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Glossary - 2


Extent of day light time i.e timespan between sunrise and sunset is termed 'Ahas'.


Depending upon the ahas duration, day time is divided into five Annas, namely,

  • Prathah, Sanghava, Madhyanna, Aparanna, Sayanna


Depending on the ahas duratin, day time is divided into 15 Kalas.

  • Roudram, Chaitram, Maitram, Shalagatam, Savitri
  • Jayantam, Gandharvam, Kudabham, Rouhinam, Virinayam
  • Vijayam, Nairuthi, Mahendram, Varunam, Bodham

Shrarddha Thithi:

Shrarddha Thithi is that thithi which prevails majority of the time during Aparanna period of five annas of the day. (Time between 1:30 to 4:00 approximately) when the thithi karmas or shrarddhas are performed.  That is treated as thithi of the day and generally described in the bottom of the daily panchangam.

If a thithi starts previous day after aparanna and finishes before the end of Madhyanna, the shraddha karmas should be finished between Kuthaba kala and Rouhina kala.

If there are two thithis in a Solar month, second thithi (Athika thithi) should be used unless it is defective due to shankrantis or grahanas.  If defective, the first thithi should be used.

If there is no thithi during Aparanna in a month, use previous month if there is Kuthabha kala sambandha. If that is defective due to  sangrahana / grahana (Solar Month / Year beginning) , next month's thithi should be used.

Thithi Dwayam:

When a shrardha thithi duration is less in previous day's Aparanna, it becomes today's thithi. If similarly duration of today's second thithi  is more than that of tomorrow, second of the thithi of the days also becomes the thithi of today.  Such ruling of two thithis are called Thithi Dwayam.  example 16-04-2011

Soonya (Shunya / Sunya) Thithi:

When there are two shrarddha thithi in the same solar month (sourav mana masa), the second one is normal thithi and the first one becomes adhika or sunya thithi.  If there masa sankranthi or month begin confluence or sign (month) change during that day, that day becomes soonya (blank) or useless for shrarddha karmas.  If that be case next or previous normal thithi in the same month is used for karmas.

Masa Pirappu / Month Beginning / Masa shankranti

Masam (Month) means sun sign change in Sourav Mana Masa system (Solar Month) system. Lunar month ends in a New Moon Day. Whenever Month is born that confluence of signs Masa Sankaranti is indicated as per traditional system as well as actual realtime in hours in Raja Panchangam. The time in hours / Nazhi (Ghati) is indicated during the last day or first day of month depending upon the the birth of month is night time or day time.


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